The Ultimate Guide to ASTM A106 Grade C Carbon Steel Pipes

ASTM A106 Grade C Carbon Steel Pipes are a type of pipe widely used in the oil and gas industry and other industrial applications. They are made of carbon steel, a type of steel that blends iron and carbon. In this post, we shall study the processes used to maintain the internal pressure by thickening their walls, manufacturing processes, and attributes of ASTM A106 Grade C Carbon Steel Pipes. We will also look at these CS pipes’ cold drawing and hot finishing processes.


Cold-drawn vs. Hot Finished Carbon Steel Pipes


Whether you need to purchase carbon steel pipes or are merely considering them, you must know how to differentiate between cold-drawn and hot-finished products. Choosing between the two depends on the application and purpose for which you will need the pipe.

Cold-drawn pipes have better dimension control and a smoother surface finish. Hot-finished tubes are typically thinner than cold-drawn products. Also, they require heat treatment after the final cold draw pass.

If you need a pipe suitable for high-temperature applications, you may want to consider the ASTM A106. This type of pipe is used for oil refineries, petrochemical plants, and power stations. It is also used in the transportation of liquids. However, if you need a pipe with higher strength and hardness, you will want to choose grade C. Unlike the other two grades, the carbon content of grade C is higher.


Inspecting Wall Thickness by Internal Pressure


The internal pressure governs the wall thickness of the Astm A106 Grade C carbon steel pipes they are subjected to. The pressure the pipe is exposed to depends on its size and material. However, transient conditions must also be considered when determining a suitable pipe grade.

Pipes used in offshore applications may be subjected to external hydrostatic pressure. If this is the case, the maximum wall thickness must be kept to a minimum. This is because the pipe’s ability to withstand circumferential external loads is inversely proportional to the out-of-roundness of the tube.

To determine the wall thickness, the formula Barlow’s equation is used. The equation is based on the nominal wall thickness and specified manufacturing tolerance.

The actual wall thickness is calculated using a different procedure. The calculation involves several factors, such as the flanges’ size, the pipe’s length, and the stiffening rings’ length.


Manufactured for Highly Versatile Properties 


The ASTM A106 Grade C is the most commonly used grade of carbon steel pipe, and it is designed to be used in high-temperature applications, such as in the transportation of oil and gas. The properties of ASTM A106 Grade C Carbon Steel Pipes include high strength and flexibility, as well as excellent resistance to corrosion and high temperatures. These pipes are also known for their good machinability, which means they can be easily shaped and formed into different sizes and shapes. 

When manufacturing ASTM A106 Grade C Carbon Steel Pipes, the process typically involves heating a carbon steel ingot, which is then rolled and stretched into a pipe shape. The pipe is cooled and cut to the required length, and the ends are beveled to allow easy welding. The tube is then inspected for defects and tested to ensure it meets all required specifications.


Maintaining Grade C Carbon Steel Pipes


In terms of maintenance and care, ASTM A106 Grade C Carbon Steel Pipes require regular cleaning and inspection to ensure they are free from corrosion and other forms of damage. They should also be protected from exposure to moisture and other corrosive substances and stored in a dry, well-ventilated area.

Features and Applications of Super Duplex S32750 Tubing

The Super Duplex grades have a higher chromium, nickel, and molybdenum content than conventional austenitic stainless steels. The range of these elements in the alloy increases the corrosion resistance and mechanical strength. These grades are beneficial in applications that demand high tensile and yield strength. They are also highly resistant to inorganic acids and chlorides. UNS S32750 is a chromium-molybdenum-vanadium (C-M-V) alloy that contains 4% molybdenum and 7% nickel. This type of stainless steel is highly suited to applications that require high mechanical strength and high resistance to chloride stress corrosion. It can be welded or seamless.

Chemical Properties

A high-performance alloy with outstanding localised corrosion resistance is called Super Duplex S32750 Tubing. Besides the high chromium, nickel, and molybdenum content, the Super Duplex S32750 Tubing exhibits high corrosion resistance and cracking. It can even withstand temperatures of up to 150°C without any problems. UNS S32750 is one of the most commonly used grades of the super duplex. It is characterized by a balanced dual-phase microstructure that is 50:50 austenite and ferrite. The alloy is resistant to stress corrosion cracking and is a good choice for fire-fighting, RO-plant piping, and heat exchangers. For the offshore oil and gas sectors, it is advantageous. Low thermal expansion coefficient is a property of the alloy. Furthermore, the duplex structure offers outstanding resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking. Super Duplex S32750 Tube is perfect for applications that demand strong corrosion resistance because of its high chromium, nickel, and molybdenum concentrations. They are particularly well suited for uses involving seawater.


Due to the addition of chromium and nitrogen to the composition, this S32750 pipe resists corrosion. Hydrogen ions cannot penetrate due to the high chromium concentration. Additionally, it creates a thin layer of surface protection. Better resistance to crevice corrosion results from the nitrogen content. A super duplex alloy with greater corrosion resistance than ordinary duplex grades is UNS S32750. In settings with sulfuric and chloride, it has good corrosion resistance. High corrosion resistance and exceptional weld ability define this alloy. Compared to other duplex grades, it offers higher corrosion resistance in seawater. In comparison to 2205(r) duplex, it is also more resistant to pitting corrosion. Additionally, it is more affordable than high-nickel alloys.

General Properties

Stainless steels generally have a long history of performing well above and below the boiling point of water. Although there are exceptions to the rule, one cannot deny that the water temperatures are tamer than the air temperatures of a typical office building or airport. That said, there is no denying that high load-bearing applications in an interior swimming pool are a particular case. Luckily for the industry, a bit of knowledge on the subject can go a long way in the name of longevity and cost savings. It is also important to mention that not all stainless steel is created equal. For example, some alloys are brittle to the point of being a nuisance. This consideration makes the selection of a suitable material critical. Having the proper alloys in your arsenal can save you time, money, and hassle. The best metals have been per-treated with the appropriate phosphate and chloride mixtures.


Stainless steel Super Duplex S32750 Tubing is a high-performance grade pipe used in various engineering applications. It is helpful in offshore technology, chemical process equipment, desalination plant, cargo tanks, flue-gas cleaning, nuclear power projects, reactor tanks, and other oil and gas equipment. Super Duplex Tubes are made of high chromium and molybdenum content. This combination of metals provides exceptional resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking and other stress-related corrosion issues. Also, these properties make this material ideal for piping in chloride-containing environments. These materials are used to fabricate heat exchangers, vessels, subsea control lines, chemical tankers, and umbilical.

Complete Guide to Stainless Steel TP 321 Pipes

What are Stainless Steel TP 321 Pipes?

Stainless steel is now the most widely used and favored material globally, having been developed more than a century ago. Given that stainless steel has significant corrosion resistance, chromium-containing characteristics can be increased. It is the best and most suitable material for SS pipes because it is low maintenance and easy to luster. Across many industries, this versatile material is essential. This may include a variety of applications, particularly for SS pipes, which provide users with advantageous features. Various grades are available in stainless steel pipes which can be useful according to our requirements. Stainless steel material can be used to form pipes, sheets, plates, etc. Some details about the most common and widely used grade, 321, are given below.

About Stainless Steel TP 321 Pipes

The austenitic class of stainless steel includes grade 321. Stainless steel grade 304 and Stainless Steel 321 Pipe have comparable chemistry. The difference is that grade 321 has almost five times as much titanium as other alloy grades in carbon content. The rate of carbide precipitation in Stainless Steel TP 321 Pipes is significantly reduced by the addition of titanium to the alloy, particularly during welding operations. Additionally, the alloy decay rate is slowed even after the SS 321 Welded Pipe has been exposed to temperatures between 800°F and 1500°F.

Features of SS TP 321 Pipes

When heated between 425 and 850 degrees C, the range at which carbide precipitation occurs, the 321 SS Pipe is not susceptible to intergranular corrosion. These pipes work well in applications requiring a temperature range of around 900 degrees Celsius. High strength and resistance to aqueous corrosion media are both features of SS TP 321 Pipe. A flexible grade of austenitic stainless steel is alloy 321 pipe. This pipe’s strength and corrosion resistance can be enriched by solution treating or annealing it at temperatures between 950 and 1120 degrees Celsius, followed by quick cooling.

General Properties of Stainless Steel TP 321 Pipes

A 321 stainless steel pipe is manufactured with a chemical composition of 17 to 19% chromium and 9 to 12% nickel, stabilized by titanium. These pipes exhibit improved resistance to corrosion and oxidation in stress-induced conditions. The pipes’ minimum yield strength is 205 MPA, while their minimum tensile strength is 515 MPA. These pipes are readily capable of being 40% longer. The 321 stainless steel piping has a Brinell 217 maximum hardness and a density of 8.0 kg/cm3.

Various Types of SS TP 321 Pipes

Stainless Steel TP 321 Pipes components are available in both seamless and welded forms. Hot steel billets are helpful to make openings in the Stainless Steel 321 Seamless Pipe that are precisely shaped. The pipes are costly because special tools are needed to shape them, but they have exceptional strength and weight-carrying capacity. Portions of sheets or strips are welded together to create a stainless steel 321 welded pipe to create a pipe grade. The low-cost pipe grades represent a benefit in applications with moderate and low pressure. Unlike seamless pipes, a welded pipe can be designed in specialized shapes to meet various project requirements.

What Are Seamless and Welded Pipes?

What Are Seamless Pipe?

Steel pipe is a type of long, hollow steel that is used as a pipeline for the transportation of fluids like gasoline, natural gas, water, steam, etc. Additionally, it is commonly utilized because it is lightweight and has the same bending and torsional strengths. Stainless Steel 347 Seamless Pipes are used in the production of engineering structures and mechanical components. Additionally used to make a range of conventional weaponry, including barrels, rounds, and more.

Types of pipes: Seamless and welded pipes

According to how they are produced, steel pipes are divided into two categories: seamless steel pipes and welded steel pipes. High-quality carbon steel or alloy steel is used to create the seamless steel pipe, which is then hot and cold-rolled.

Rolling produces seamless steel tubes all at once. After rolling, welded steel pipes must be joined together, typically via spiral and straight welding. Better performance seamless tube comes with a higher cost, as expected.

What Are Welded Pipes?

A steel plate that has been rolled into a tubular shape by a seam or a spiral seam is joined together to create the welded steel pipe. It can be further broken down based on the technique of manufacture into welded steel pipes for low-pressure fluid transportation, spiral-welded electric steel pipes, direct-wound welded steel pipes, electric welded pipes, and similar items. Many different liquids, gas pipelines, and other applications can use seamless steel tubes. Water pipes, gas pipes, and heating systems can all use welded pipes.

Applications of Welded Pipes

It is frequently used on high-voltage equipment because of its performance, particularly the pressure bearing capacity, which is significantly improved when compared to regular steel pipes.

The weakest link in welded steel pipe is the weld joint, and the weld quality has a significant impact on how well the pipe functions as a whole. Most people who have lived in the north have dealt with frozen water pipes or heating pipes throughout the winter, the locations where explosions typically weld. In general, the carrier has strict criteria for things like pressure, environment, upkeep, corrosion, and heat. For seams requiring low pressure and temperature, use seamless steel pipes such as gas lines and living water systems.

What are Stainless Steel Electropolished Pipe?

What is Stainless Steel Electropolished Pipe?

Stainless steel electropolished pipes have a smooth exterior on all sides and are constructed of stainless steel. Stainless steel is used in place of copper as the cathode, making the process quite similar to electroplating. In order to apply electrolyte solution to metal, tiny bubbles are made using a nozzle. By creating bubbles in the metal, it becomes porous and able to hold more electrolytes. It also becomes smoother by coating all sides with electrolytes.

Stainless steel electropolished pipes and tubing is used in biotechnology, semiconductor, and pharmaceutical industries. For use in varied applications, electroplating finishing provides a variety of standards. A medium range of finish is required for this kind of application. The excessive roughness of the electropolished Stainless Steel Pipe is reduced by the electropolished process. This expands the size of the pipes, making it possible to precisely position the EP Pipe in delicate systems like industrial pharmaceutical applications. A number of materials can be electro-polished.

Some Benefits of Electropolished Pipes

It is common for gases and liquids to be transported through metal pipes. In the case of residential water supply lines, for example, there is no requirement for high sensitivity or high cost. A medical device, however, is a highly sensitive, expensive, and commercially viable product. In order to meet different quality and standard requirements, different quality and standard requirements must be met. Mechanical and chemical qualities are not the only qualities that are needed when precision dimensions are required. It is possible to overcome this problem by drawing the pipes as seamlessly as possible.

Stainless steel seamless pipes are less rough and more accurate dimensionally and in terms of absolute roughness. It is necessary to electropolished the interior of a pipe when it is destined for a delicate application requiring smooth and spotless surfaces. Electrolysis involves losing atoms from the surface of the product one by one until a polished finish can be achieved.

Multiple Uses can be made of Electropolished Pipes

Whenever liquids or chemicals are transferred, pipes need to be shielded from the environment to avoid corrosion and rust. An electropolished process forms a shield of chrome that prevents dirt, moisture, and other impurities from adhering to the surface. Pipes electro-polished in stainless steel helps prevent corrosion and rust from entering the interior. The pipes are saturated with an electric charge that prevents moisture and grime from adhering to surfaces.

This technology can also be used for high-pressure pipes. People who work in the oil or gas industry are probably more aware of the importance of this since their pipe systems are sometimes under a lot of stress. By forming a protective layer of chromium on the inside surface of your pipes, electropolished aids in the prevention of cracks in piping systems operating under high pressure.

Stainless steel electropolished pipes are used to add a beautiful shine to your stainless steel appliances. They are available in different sizes and materials, so you can find the perfect fit for your sink or dishwasher.

Difference Between Seamless And Stainless Steel 304 Welded Pipes

What are pipes exactly?

Water is transported through pipes, and sewage is carried through them, as well as gas is transported through pipes, although it is less efficient than other forms of piping, such as steel pipes. The pipes are used in many applications, including plumbing, oil and gas pipelines, and irrigation systems. The pipes typically have two ends, one at each end of the tube that is connected or piped together in some manner. Metal pipes (copper or steel pipes) are commonly used, but plastic pipes or other materials can also be used.

Welded pipes:

Stainless Steel 304 Welded Pipes are made by rolling the stainless steel sheet and welding process. Spot-welded pipes fall into four categories, welded pipes, spiral welded pipes, arc welded pipes, and pipes with straight seams.

Seamless pipes:

Seamless Stainless Steel 304 Welded Pipes have a hollow cross-section and no seams, have inconsistent wall thicknesses, and lack quality of brightness both on the inside and outside. There are a number of complicated processes used to produce seamless tubes, starting with drilling holes in billets, followed by drawing, drawing, and rolling after cold drawing.

Surface finishing is original:

An original surface of Stainless Steel 304 Welded Pipes is superior to a seamless steel pipe. The faults in the exterior surface of a hot-rolled billet cannot be corrected during the hot rolling process; they can only be corrected after the seamless pipe has been fabricated. The removal of superficial flaws is complicated. Once the finished product is ready for processing, the flaws can be removed.

The grade that was used:

Stainless Steel 304 Welded Pipes are considered to be the most common grade of pipes. 316 type welded stainless steel pipe is rare since it is more expensive than 304. In the petrochemical, compressor machinery, heating, and boiler industry, seamless Stainless Steel 304 Welded Pipes are primarily used in grades 304 and 316, which have higher pressure capacities and greater strength.

Differences in thickness and size:

Pipes made of welded stainless steel have thinner and more uniform walls. Stainless steel seamless pipes have thick, heavy walls.

Price and cost:

There is a lower price difference between seamless and welded stainless steel pipes, and welded stainless steel pipes are generally available in highly uniform lengths.


Seamless pipes can usually be used when low-pressure applications or when flexibility is required, such as in gas lines, since stainless steel welded pipes can handle greater pressures without bursting. Welded stainless steel pipes are commonly used in high-pressure applications where they can handle greater pressures without bursting.

A Complete Guide to Stainless Steel 304 Pipes and Tubes

Stainless steel is a versatile material which widely used in all applications possible. Stainless steel 304 is the grade of stainless steel which has 18% chromium and 8% nickel in it and is known as austenitic chromium alloy. However, chloride alternatives can corrode 304 stainless steel. Chloride ions can induce pitting or cracking, which are limited to corrosion zones. These deteriorated pieces can propagate to damage interior components when protected by chromium oxide barriers.
Stainless steel pipe is available in a variety of widths and thicknesses and is a popular material in metal fabrication for home and car modifications.
Stainless steel pipes are available in a variety of configurations, including seamless stainless steel pipes, welded stainless steel pipes, carbon steel seamless pipes, and alloy steel seamless pipes. The stainless steel pipe is the most often used stainless steel product. Galvanized and stainless steel are two materials that can be utilized in steel tube constructions. The Stainless Steel 304 Pipe grade is one of the most common grades of stainless steel pipe.

Features of SS 304 tubes and pipes:

Weld-ability is exceptional:

The welding properties of stainless steel 304 are excellent, which means post-weld annealing is not needed for narrow sections. Stainless steel 304 offers excellent weld-ability in all typical fusion procedures, with or without filler metals. To ensure optimum corrosion resistance, it is often necessary to anneal large areas of SS 304 after welding.
Heat treatment:
Using Heat during Solution Treatment Stainless Steel 304 may be heated to 1010-1120 degrees Celsius and then rapidly cooled. Thermal treatment cannot harden these grades. Stainless Steel 304 Tubes with excellent strength and durability are obtained through heat treatment. The heat treatment step is crucial in the production of stainless steel 304 tubes.


The increased machinability variant “Ugima” of Machining Grade 304 is available in bar products. “Ugima” machines are substantially better than regular 304, resulting in greater machining rates and lower tool wear in many operations.

Tubing made from Grade 304 stainless steel can be used in a variety of applications:

This steel is suitable for products such as sinks and dishwashers since it’s not prone to acid corrosion found in food. It is therefore used in several fields, including food processing.
Food processing equipment, refrigerators, chemical containers, and pipes throughout brewing operations can use stainless steel 304 tubes, but they can also be used to manufacture structures in environments that would corrode standard carbon steel. It can be used as a manufactured material for high-temperature petroleum gasses and vapors stored in pressure tanks.